Article Index

Fish Production Sustainability, Value chain, Fish Food Safety and its Contributions to Food and Nutrition Security; the Case of Lake Hawassa and Rural Sidama Region, Ethiopia

PIs: Derese Tamiru and et al.,2020

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Executive Summary

The major aim of the research project was to assess the fish food safety and quality, contribution of fishery and aquaculture for food and nutrition security, sustainability, and value chain of fish production in open fish market of Lake Hawassa and pond fish in Wensho and Darra woredas of Sidama region. As a result, a total of 1,437 individuals, including fishermen, and women and under-five children of fishing households and consumers participated. Key informant interviews among stakeholders were also approached. The result showed fishery contributes to household food security and women’s nutrition. It contributed to household food security, better fish consumption, and dietary diversity.  The laboratory experiment showed that adding fish to the children’s diet improves ash, fat, and protein contents of the diet if it is added. High commercial values Nile tilapia, (Oreochromis niloticus) fish muscle usually consumed in the market was considered for key food safety and quality assessments. The hypocholesterolemic/hypercholesterolemic ratio was relatively similar in the fried (1.09) and raw (1.02) fish muscles. The n-6/n-3 ratio (7.83), index of atherogenicity (0.85), and thrombogenicity (1.71) in the fried fish muscle were in undesirable values compared with the recommendations.

A higher percentage of Tran’s fatty acid was identified in the fried fish muscle compared with raw.  Beyond these, repeated use of frying oil is becoming familiar practice for cost minimization and there are health-related problems associated with reusing of frying oil. The experimental result indicated that ash, crude fat content, saturated fatty acid, Tran’s fatty acid, free fatty acid content and peroxide value of deep-fried fish were increased with the frying cycle, while the protein, moisture, unsaturated, cis and essential fatty acid were decreased. The heavy metals were below the permissible limits of the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) and the World Health Organization of the United Nations.  The microbial load analysis showed that results were failed in the unsatisfactory category according to the international food standards. So, special attention should be taken from concerned authorities and food handlers.

On the other hand, smallholder farmers’ participation in fish production in the study areas is perceived to be generally very low. Several factors motivated to go for fish production and marketing. In contrary to this, improper fishing gears, absence of adequate fish feed supplier, land shortage, absence of fingerling suppliers lack of awareness, weak institutional support to the producers and technical knowledge regarding how to prepare and feed improved formulated feed, a lack of equipment, unstable predator price, insufficient supply or low capacity of production to attain breakeven (covering all fixed at least), infrastructural problems like a road, electric city, post-harvest loss, poor market information and lack of a permanent market place where some of the constraints. Therefore, improving both fish production and marketing could improve the livelihood of the farmers. The result of the economic viability analysis revealed that pond fish production would be a profitable job if done properly. The Lake has been over-exploited during the past two decades, and the overfishing in turn did cause declining the annual yield of the fisheries of Lake. The rate of exploitation of the stock by fisheries is much faster than it replenishes itself. The majority of the fishermen believe that the amount of fish they produce is decreased; customers are not satisfied in terms of size and amount; fish production is affected by frequent fishing without proper advice. The key informants confirmed the visible ineffective management of the fishery resources as the lake is owned by two regions making it difficult to effectively control the illegal fishermen. 


Corporate Governance, Operations Core Competency, and Firm Performance: A Study in Medium and Large Scale Manufacturing Industry in Ethiopia

PIs:  ObsaTeferi and et al., 2020

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Executive Summary

The crucial role of manufacturing firms in creating employment, wealth accumulation, and poverty alleviation is highly recognized in emerging economies. To maintain sustainable economic growth, firms need to be innovative, competitive and increase firm value. Innovation, among other factors is generally recognized as a powerful engine that enables a firm to be competitive, build market share and increase export performance. However, innovation is not a one-off process rather a gradual process of transforming ideas into marketable products or processes. In this regard, little is known about the drives of innovation and how those drivers collectively influence firm performance, especially based on evidence from medium and large-scale firms operating in developing countries.

The project examines the effect of corporate governance on firm performance and the role of operations core competency (knowledge management and technology management) in enhancing innovation. The project encompasses three sub-components (1) Corporate governance and firm performance, (2) knowledge management and innovation, and (3) technology management and innovation. For the current survey, 200 medium and large-scale manufacturing firms were selected from the total list of 2,610 firms in 2015. A standardized questionnaire with four separate components has been used to obtain data. Of the 200 questionnaires distributed, 153 usable questionnaires of firm performance, knowledge management, and technology management were returned. However, only 120 usable questionnaires on corporate governance were returned. The study was carried out over three consecutive years commencing January 2017.

The research design applied involves descriptive and explanatory. A quantitative approach was used for all sub-components. We have used Structural equation modeling to test the conceptual hypotheses. The measurement model of structural equation modeling has been evaluated for validity, reliability and goodness of model fit based on the recommended statistics and fit indices. The multi-normality and cross-loading assumptions were also performed for all models. The findings of the first sub-component show that board independency and disclosure have a strong positive effect on firm performance. However, boar effectiveness and internal audit effectiveness have a significant negative relation with some constructs of firm performance. The study finds shareholders' role has a direct and indirect significant positive effect on both board effectiveness and firm performance. 

Knowledge management (as operationalized by knowledge acquisition, sharing, conversion, and storage) has a significant positive influence on all dimensions of innovation (product, process, administrative, and marketing). The result also revealed organizational factors (organizational culture and leadership & management support) have a significant positive effect on all knowledge management dimensions. There is a direct and indirect association between organizational factors and innovation. Knowledge sharing best functions in mediating between organizational factors and innovation dimensions. Additionally, technology management (technology process, acquisition, absorption and transfer) has a strong positive effect on technological innovation measures: process, product and method innovations.

The project has brought valuable findings which might help different stakeholders. For example, it will help the target firms to identify efficient methods of promoting innovation.  They would also get a clue on corporate governance mechanisms. Eventually, the result will be used as a reliable source of information for policy makers and other stakeholders who are working in support of medium and large-scale manufacturing firms.

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